About the Author: John D. Norseen is a D.Sc. (ABD) at
George Washington University, where he teaches Engineering
Management graduate courses in the Research and Development
and International Marketing of Advanced Information Science
and Technology. John is also under contract to Lockheed
Martin where, as a systems engineer, he is working on special
programs concerning next generation Intelligent Systems.
His experience covers over twenty years of transforming
creative ideas into the team production of critical
national security systems.
Images of Mind: The Semiotic Alphabet
KEYWORDS: semiotics, 2-D to 3-D mental representations, left Occipital Areas L-17/18, invariance, quantum encoding, neuropil, lissajous, self-similarity, sentient
ABSTRACT: Left Occipital Areas L-17/18 seem to perform the same neurological functions for visual conversion of 2-D retinal visual sensory information signals into 3-D semiotic mental representations as the involvement of Broca-Wernicke area in the conversion of aural sensory signals into a finite set of sound types producing neurolinguistic patterns. Self-similar (ergodic) distribution throughout the brain of a visual semiotic language comprised of a finite alphabet of basic images would appear to consist of lissajous-like patterns operating in two modalities: resonating electromagnetic mode, and a morphological (structural reconfiguration) mode. Recall of visual forms of memory would suggest a biological identification via invariance as the result of quantum encoding in the protein microtubulin (MT) of the neuropil. Machine emulation of human sentient computing would require both local and non-local access to binding networks of semiotic languages in the brain.
1.1 There is a preponderance of uniquely human brain structure related to sentient processes on the left side hemisphere of the cerebral cortex. This is most likely due to the flow of blood from the heart (Pribram, personal discussion 1991). The left side of the brain is presented with a richer amount of brain nutrients than is the right side of the brain. Accordingly, the left side of the human brain consists of a much more knotty topology.
Broca-Wernicke in the left temporal region is implicated in the emergence of neurolinguistic activity. Left Occipital Lobe Area 17 and surrounding Area 18 is implicated in the emergence of visual mental representations. [click here for PET Image of this structure] In both linguistic and visual areas, if the associated cortex is not presented with adequate sensory stimulation during initial brain structural formation, there is a correspondent diminuition to complete lack of development of human sentient word/thought and visual pattern recognition capability later in life. This would suggest that there are critical early morphological conditions supporting neurocomputation and neurocommunication that consolidate into a binding network that produces sentient behavior.
Given that sentient behavior, to include a posteriori learning, can still be evidenced in the human brain after damage or dysfuntion of the left hemispheric region occurs, would suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) distributes learned information patterns throughout the entire brain structure. A lissajous-like self-similar dissemination of processed 1/f invariant sensory signal information from initial cortex receptor sites is posited.
Encoding discrimination of biologic sensory information is accomplished by quantum shift keying (QSK). QSK originates in the orchestrated reduction (OR) of quantum entanglement at specific electromagnetic resonating frequency locations in protein microtubulin in the neuropil. QSK is then communicated via oscillating and standing waves in the neurosynaptic - dendritic region. This resonating mode is either reinforced or reduced by related binding, non-binding activity in other regions of the brain. At certain frequency and energy thresholds, a combining resonance is established in brain function that binds the various oscillating brain subresonances into a cohesive, sentient pattern.
Crick (94) suggests that this combining resonance occurs when the brain enters into a special 40+ Hz binding frequency regime. There is evidence that sentient energy thresholds are significant, because there is a residue of human specific adenosine tri-phoshate (ATP) in the blood following cognitive (sentient) episodes. This residue does not appear in other animals and would suggest human specific thought processes. Binding processes also appear to cause morphological changes in the brain. The role of nitrogen molecule and crystalline H2O resonance is essential to the binding process. As the brain undergoes various stages of neuronal sprouting, consolidation and pruning, plasticity of the microtubulin provides the brain with the ability to adapt and codify useful sensory infomation signals into semi-permanent pathways.
Hameroff (90's) indicates that calpain is a primary neuromolecule that softens brain protein microtubulin (MT), which after a electromagnetic resonance wave interference pattern (holonomic) is presented onto the MT, the calpain is dissipated and a structural imprint of the QSK encoded wavefront interference pattern is thus captured in biologic protein structure. Sufficient memory storage mechanisms would be available in the brain to overcome state cycle limitations, since no synapto-dendritic region physically touches any other in the human brain. This establishes myriad number of switching pathways for random, but QSK coded, information patterns to be stored, with self-similar recall features in place. Access to any part of the lissajous-like distribution pattern would allow eventual reconstruction of the invariant information stored in holonomic memory. Internal stimulation of the resonant frequency modality or the actual physical bandwidth would provide the brain with internal memory recall capability. Cognitive recall is comprised of Gabor Functions in Hilbert Space.
Zero Point Energy - ZPE (Puthoff 89) could be the trigger effect in 1013-type MT providing the necessary resonant energy to overcome ATP thresholds, thus affording quantum entanglement options. In conjunction with either acidic or base bound, crystalline water (H2O), a 10 base MT becomes a resonating biocomputer in the electric portion of an electromagnetic field. A 13 base MT becomes a resonating biocomputer in the magnetic field. Because proteins (as strings) can reconfigure (conformal deformation - change shapes), a 1013 MT forms the basis of a very powerful 3-D biocomputational structure. Proteins can take shape around useful invariants extracted from frequency based information expressed in the electromagnetic field - learning.
Invariance can be captured in MT by quantum encryption of various combinations of photons, phonons and electrons, which may synergistically produce, via solitons, a binding property of emergent epiphenomenon, a biofield communication both local and non-local to the protein MT strings. Calpain induced start/stops in the dendritic-synaptic receptors, with varying degrees of glial cell neurochemical nutrient infusion, turn on or off the QSK coded learning sequences in the MT. As more and more of neuronal activity forms a topological geometry around these events, oscillating in concert, perceptual and then cognitive events transpire, suggesting a process for sensory to sentient computation.
Stapp (96) would argue an orchestrated reduction (OR) to a single quantum state. Prueitt (96), Globus (96), Norseen (96), and others would have a quantum entanglement that collapses not to a single state, but to a much more robust explosion (big bang) of quantum view. From this viewstate, the Crick, Pribram holonomic binding would provide a Penrose brain/mind the following biological choices in order to attend to the afferent sensory input; 1.) Select from the semiotic hypotheses generated, 2.) Prefrontal lobe induced noise to defer selection, and transfer of the hypothesis generation/selection to control of the anterior cingulate and other neuronal subtopologies for a Prigogine like epiphenomenon of emergence, or 3.) Symmetry break and ignore, measurement (Kugler 95) indicates release of the quantum enfoldment event.
Energy dissipation occurs in Modes 1 and 3. Quantum Shift Key (QSK) coding occurs via OR events to Modes 1 and 2 allowing for encoded memory-based recall processes. Non-cognitive attended symmetry and continued energy requirements are still afforded to Mode 2 - deferral, until a cognitive Mode 1 is achieved.
Globus discussions would indicate this is the principle of cybernetic loops in consciousness. Prueitt (96) would claim that initial memory is not required to initiate these processes, which suggests a basis for codelets as a basic QSK element to differentiate nature into groupings of natural kind. The human brain, without initial memory, can begin to learn by experiential and semiotic testing built around codelets, an original form of original kind strange attractor. If such trigger learning is successful in establishing QSK encoded memories, then regular neuronal learning mechanisms become dominant. In such fashion, the brain is capable of feeding itself critical information with, or without, memory as a necessary requirement.
Rough sets of similar information would share relatively common QSK cryptologic codes, and the presence of various categories of self-similar, reduced mathematical coefficient sets of natural codelets, may suggest a useful and powerful biologic mechanism to store and retrieve information efficiently - natural compression, decompaction.
2.0 THE SEMIOTIC PROCESS IN AREA L-17
The semiotic alphabet brain region correlated in function to Broca-Wernicke would be primarily the specific subtopology of the cerebral cortex in the left posterior occipital region, Area L-17. Surrounding Area 17 in both the left and right rear hemispheres of the brain is a different grouping of brain cells and neuronal pathways with connections to the rest of the brain - Area 18. Area 17 and Area 18 take visual information from the eyes and structurally perform a 2-D to 3-D semiotic conversion of objects in the field of view of the eyes into an internal mental representation of visual reality for dissemination to other regions of the brain (Kabrisky 66). Only three (3) genes control the human visual process. This indicates that substantial signal extraction and signal processing is involved in the human visual schema.
The direct neuronal sensory high fidelity input from the human fovea to Area 17 is greater in humans than any other species. This would indicate that the human visual semiotic 3-D mental representation is also greater than in other species.
There is also a significant amount of otherwise 'hard wired' as opposed to soft signal processing in the direct visual coupling into Area 17. Certain aspects of prosopopoeia, specific facial features indicating authority, and certain edge and top-bottom receptors, directly fire neuronal complexes in Area 17, as well as in the amygdala raising stress/anxiety reactions, and in the learned motor response complexes of the cerebellum. The combination of spectrum-based codelets and muscle contractions in the lense of the eyes are probably associated with the human homeostatic condition; for example: the pineal gland hormonal responses to whole spectrum natural light / brightness, such as implicated in the release of melatonin.
Area 17 and 18 interpret the images that the brain must respond to, deal with, that form the world of visual language, the semiotic languages that form our unique interaction with the world - the human personal visual signature. There are not thousands of images in the semiotic alphabet. There are not hundreds. Just as in Broca-Wernicke area where only about forty (40) sound types form the basis of culturally expressed language, there are a relatively small number of images in the visual semiotic alphabet. However, the combination and reconfiguration of this finite set is still able to produce the myriad complexity of mental representation producing creativity, insight, color, and dreams which form the basis of the human experience.
The human brain is actually many brains. Not only left and right, but front and back, top and bottom. And it is really many little brains sometimes acting (binding) as one, to cognate, to think, but many brain processes are acting without volitional cognition. It would seem that the great percentage of the human mental world is non-cognitive, and non-conscious, even unconscious.
Accordingly, there are many languages in the brain. Each brain language, to include emotions, would appear to have its own alphabet. The central thesis is on the finite set - the alphabet of images in the brain.
This image alphabet makes up a semiotic internal visualization of self-image and world reality that we call, 'us.' The visual enfoldment describes a relatively small, but consistent number of archetype images that the Brain/Central Nervous System must respond to and deal with for survival.
This is a powerful concept: That a handful of images can shape the self-identity of a person, a group, a society, a culture.
Vincent van Gogh cut off his left ear to give to a trollop, but his self-protrait perspective of the event portrayed a sliced up right ear. Even considering he was using a mirror to paint himself, he still transforms to the outside world observer the impression of destruction of an opposite form of himself.
Rather than the accepted interpretation that in some fit of rage, he was performing self-inflicted surgery to relieve an inner ear infection, could there really have been some hypersensitivity, some extreme antinomy, to van Gogh's Broca-Wernicke area, in that he was trying to silence internal voices, in a phase locked loop, that were compelling him in some tortuous semiotic malady?
That the reversed perspective of right and left is also expressed would indicate that van Gogh could have also had some combination of dysfunction in left Occipital Lobe Area 17, problems in the Area 18 3-D semiotic dispersion throughout the cerebral cortex, and/or disrupted intracollasal transfer in the corpus callosum. Depending on whether van Gogh painted with his right or left hand could also impune his cerebellum as an ironic contributor to the amazing agony expressed so passionately and beautifully in van Gogh's works of art.
Left Occipital Lobe Visual Area 17 and Semiotic Conversion Area 18 can also be considered likely candidate contributors to the dream induced prosopopoeia directly causing Robert Louis Stevenson's creative reconstruction of a reverie - an internal semiotic mental representamen: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, perhaps also influenced by the effects of single blend, all malt scotch whiskey alcohol vapors in the nighttime air in the environs of Edinburgh University.
Area 17 and 18 could also be the semiotic trigger point for the nocturnal succuba visitation to Giuseppe Tartini in the 1700's, resulting in a pure musical orchestration crosslink in Broca-Wernicke area: the haunting Faustian sounds in Trillo del Diavolo, the Devil's Trill.
From what can be arguably ascribed as temporal lobe epilepsy that affected the visual and sound distortions in Alice in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll, to the selection by Goya, in Toledo, Spain, of the 'chosen' insane to pose as the portraitures of the Disciples touched by God, to many of the bizarre, to include metempsychotic, renderings of possessed artists, to the Deja Vu and Jamais Vu, and the many fold synergies of ergodic self-similarity expressed by Escher: the Hand of the Area 17, 18 semiotic process is at play.
The semiotic binding process across the cerebral cortex and deep down into the glial cells, the wellsprings feeding the information fields of the synapto-dendritic layers under control of fiefdoms and kingdoms of rival neuropils, picks and choses among competing 3-D mental representations in lissajous fashion. The semiotic down selection of Gabor Functions in Hilbert Space is the focus of attention characterized by an Einstein internally discerning mathematics, to the sweet memories of happiness down the perceived passage of time, clocked by the striatum in the basal ganglia.
Semiotic binding seems to work best when the brain is entrained between 7.83 Hz and 14 Hz, with special tunneling and neurochemical surges in the 9 to 10 Hz regime. The meditative Theta and modified Alpha-Theta states would appear to be the quiet zones where the ability to attend to internal mental representations can best be captured for reconstruction back through the efferent central nervous system pathways to show the world what floats in the mind. This delivery mechanism which brings forth creation back into the world in any number of newly reconfigured states (eolithic capacity) could be the semiotic description for the concepts in Richard Dawkins 1970's notion of 'The Building Blocks of Comprehension,' the Thought Memes, the Culturgen.
When such a semiotic process is flowing without difficulty, a state of grace, almost of not knowing, exists. However, noise and symmetry breaking and chaos is ever lurking in nature, if only to shatter the present to get to the future: To establish a new condition of test and survival.
Perhaps the tortured expression of a van Gogh is his attempt to return to a semiotic state of grace.
From Shakespeare, '...per chance to Dream.' If the semiotic process of binding creativity is evident in the dream Theta and meditative Alpha brain wave activity, and it appears to go on the fritz in the hyperactive Beta states, verging on out of control frenzied, phase locked loops and symmetry breaking madness bypassing 30 Hz, then what happens to the semiotic process in deep, deep sleep, the periods of seeming total non-conscious activity of Delta, and some comas, way down at 1 to 3, 4, 5 Hz? Humans enter this extremely dangerous twilight zone on average of three times per night, for about twenty minutes each. For one hour total each night, we slip the surely bonds of semiotics and lay prey to another's survival. Evidently, Delta sleep is involved with restoring the mental calibrations and nutrient stores necessary for sentient behavior.
The range of cognitive and non-cognitive control (lucid dreaming) of semiotic processes in some brain states and the inability to take telelogical advantage of semiotic processes in other brain states, to include chemical and electromagnetic induced entrainment, would suggest strongly that semiotic function is related to brain morphology and resonance.
When brain structure is put into a certain condition, semiotics occurs. As well, when brain structure is resonantly changed into another state, semiotics does not occur. Human brain structure can be shown to be significantly different is some neuronal subtopological regions than in any other species. Therefore, humans may engage in, due to their species specific brain structures resonating at certain brain frequency states, purely human semiotic experiences. These purely human semiotic experiences bind us not only as individual structurally different contributors, but as mutual individual participants to a common, larger human semiotic pool of information and creativity. If the human brain continues to evolve, and semiotics is critical to that evolution, then semiotic control will also continue to evolve.
Just as humans have developed machines as prosthetic devices to augment or outperform human function, then it would follow that initial emulation of semiotic processes in mental 3-D representation would be emplaced in machine logic. If internal to semiotic function is the innate ability to reconfigure information into new forms of perception, creativity, comprehension, and knowledge, then at some point in machine semiotic logic, machine semiotics could emerge in startingly different and dramatic fashion from human semiotics: This would signal a strict delineation, the Dawn of the Sentient Computational Era.
Semiotics is the science of signs. The Peircian triadic form of semiotics involves combinations of Symbols, Indexes, and Icons, that form Signs (Ketner 96). Signs transform Objects from Reality into Mental Representations. Sentient activity is the process of transforming reality into mind for reconfiguration and the creative infusion back into reality. When humans dream, or create, or bring up images of faces of loved ones, or replay memories in the theater of mind, there is a utilization of Peircian triadic logic - a semiotic process.
Within the field of semiotics, the work of Charles Peirce would suggest avenues by which the logic of discovery employed by biological systems could be captured for insertion into machine logic and symbolic computation. If human eolithic semiotic processes are indeed related to algebraic topologies, structural geometries, and critical resonating information field frequencies, then advanced mathematics are required to accomodate the complex range of transformations necessary to synchronize human mental and machine logic interactions. The emerging mathematical investigations into Transfigural Mathematics (Shakunle 96) suggest avenues amenable for the conversion and transformation of human semiotics instantiated into machine semiotic processes.
The influence of Peirce's work in the late 1800's, recompiled by Dr. Burkes at Harvard in the 1940's and 50's, can be seen in the current investigations of John Holland, from the University of Michigan in EE/CS, now at the Sante Fe Institute. Holland is working on the next generation of Genetic Algorithms and Adaptive Complex Systems.
Semiotics stands to benefit from a robust interchange not only from standard scientific circles, but also from ideas and concepts and themes that come from non-standard scientific domains, even if controversial. There is a large body of useful insight to be gained from relooking historical, and contemporary, and even future assertions on the human condition that may not come neatly packaged in classic scientific wrapping.
A few of the seminal books that can guide the ongoing examination of semiotic mind and brain are:
Also, Matthew Kabrisky: 'A Proposed Model for Visual Information Processing in the Human Brain.' The writings of Pennfield and Lashley, Ashby and Weiner, Persinger, Changeux and D'Arcy Thompson, and of D.L. Koruga, 'Neurocomputing and Consciousness,' set the stage for a growing network of accessible researchers, colleagues, and professional talent capable of developing methods and techniques that can tailor specific mind/brain semiotic-sentient solutions.
Recently, on 15 May 1996, Dr. Karl Pribram of the Radford University BRAINS Research Center, presented a masterful lecture at Georgetown University, in which he formulated an architecture for a 21st Century mind/brain multidisciplinary research paradigm, the title of which is: "The Deep and Surface Structures of Memory and Conscious Learning: Toward a 21st Century Model."
Pribram's model, in concert with the brain plasticity work in protein microtubulin of Stuart Hameroff, and in the quantum entanglement work with Roger Penrose, and others, serves as a solid baseline for continuing work by many different scientific research and development communities.
As the scientific community shifts to a virtual world of internetted, multidisciplinary electronic laboratories (E-Labs), the emergence of Images of Mind: The Semiotic Alphabet is part of an ongoing research and development program contained in the evolution of the Applied Para-Mechanics Lab (APL), which is mutually participating and supporting the maturation of the Sentient Machine Laboratory (SML).
Of note, the United States Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) report, "New World Vistas - 21st Century," commissioned by the Secretary of the Air Force and co-signed by the Chief of Staff (94), concluded in 1996, on pages 50 and 51 of the Executive Summary that:
Semiotic based approaches are suggested for the next millenium control of Intelligent Systems, including Uninhabited Combat Aeronautical Vehicles.
Computational theorists forecast that over the next twenty years, the current generation of machine intelligence will rapidly flow toward Quantum computers, to Biologic computers, to Sentient computers in the year 2020. Such forecasts require fundamental breakthroughs in determining how the Human-Animal engages the processes of the Central Nervous System to achieve conscious and non-cognitive awareness. Just as the 'Double Helix' gave way to recombinant DNA of the human genome, the binding process of Human Thought may give way to bioelectromagnetic manipulation - unlocking the critical quantum resonances of human microtubulin in the neuropil, human brain frequencies, the keys to Consciousness, of Sentient Life, to alter reality.
4.0 ALPHABET OF IMAGES
Here is the alphabet of images that become the human visual language via the semiotic processes triggered in L-17/18. The brain deals with a set of images that form an alphabet for visual language.
The brain also uses a set of up to about forty (40) sound types to form our 'neurolinguistic' spoken languages. Accordingly, there appear to be other languages in the brain; for emotion, for kinesthetics, perhaps even for morality.
Each language is directly related to both specific and dispersed subregions of brain structure.
Brain structure, neuronal morphology, is extremely important. The interlinking of the various neuronal subtopologies and the associated mental 'semiotic' languages is what affords us our condition as 'human-animal' sentient beings. As we attend more or less to the different semiotic languages constantly reconfiguring the patterns in our brains, we communicate to ourselves internally and to others externally our sense of reality and purpose - our personal signature.
For verbal language, Broca-Wernicke on the left temporal side of the cerebrum is a critical structural region of the brain, taking sounds and dispersing the semiotic meanings throughout the lissajous-like distribution channels of the cortex. Not all sounds in the brain are implicated through the ears. Thermoelastic pressure waves from microwave pulsing, internal brain dysfunctions, the 'in-bandwidth' signal memory recall in dreams, and other forms of invasive and non-invasive aural hallucinations can make the brain sense and then perceive it is hearing real sounds.
For Images of the Mind: The Semiotic Alphabet brain region correlated in function to Broca-Wernicke would be primarily the specific subtopology of the cerebral cortex in the left posterior Occipital region, Area L-17.
Surrounding Area 17 in both the left and right rear hemispheres of the brain is a different grouping of brain cells and neuronal pathways with connections to the rest of the brain - Area 18.
Area 17 and 18 take visual information from the eyes and structurally perform a semiotic conversion of objects in the field of view of the eyes to an internal 3-D mental representation and interpretation of visual reality for dissemination to other regions of the brain.
A Visual Semiotic Poem:
From the old religious proverb: "...To Name It is to Know It, to Possess the Power of It."
From a new semiotic proverb: "...To See It is to Know It, to Possess the Power of It."
4.1 EYES - GREEN
Green wavelengths are the baseline color of the 2-D to 3-D transformation of visual reality into the semiotic images of mind.
The eyes are an extension of the brain. Only three genes control the structural development of the human eyes, whereas thousands of genes orient the human olfactory sense/perceive neurology of smells. Such a limited number of genes suggests that the eye-brain interpretation and conversion of high bandwidth visual sensory data into mental representations is predominantly accomplished by signal processing activities that generate an extremely efficient signal to noise separation. Since images brought to mind, such as in dreaming, do not appear to contain any noise, suggests that the signal processing accomplished in the optical chiasmatic pathways culminating in Area 17 and Area 18 is a lossless compression-decompaction activity.
The eyes and the optic nerves are biologically configured to capture environmental information in the analog visual portion of the electromagnetic spectrum at roughly .4 to .7 micrometers (um) in wavelength. The highest concentration of photoreceptors at the Macula-Fovea, situated above the optic nerve, is directly centered in the green portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, 5.5+ um. The color green requires the least amount of signal feature extraction/processing energy expenditure in the human eye - brain.
From an evolutionary viewpoint, eye fatigue, and the associated sensory reduction of important visual information from the environment resulting from eye fatigue, would lead to a corresponding decrease in survival potential.
That the color green is the primary spectrum focused into the Macula-Fovea, indicates that the human eye-brain genetic structure evolved around an energy conserving process with respect to an environment dominated by the reflection of green wavelengths. For the human-eye brain, structured along an extremely efficient, energy conserving, noiseless signal extraction of useful environmental features, green is the baseline color.
The Macula-Fovea field of view is one to one directly connected and mapped into an exact 2-D topological map into Area 17 in the Occipital regions of the brain, with information passing through the hypothalamic and cerebellum regions. Area 18 is implicated in transforming Area 17 information into 3-D semiotic images for dispersion throughout the central nervous system.
Given that green is the primary color around which semiotic images of mind are formed, leads to the concept that different colors entering an energy conserving field of view will cause a change in the semiotic state. The change in the semiotic state requires an energy expenditure. Over time, the biological value to attend to or not attend to the different colors will become reinforced by survival and genetic factors.
However, for the individual human, structurally capable of sensing and perceiving the electromagnetic visual spectrum, the eye-brain will automatically adjust and respond to colorful objects presented onto a green baseline field of view.
When gazing onto a continuous field of green grass, the eye is immediately drawn to the white dash of a butterfly, or the bright yellow spot of a dandelion, or the sparkling glint of sunlight on a red reflective surface, or the standing shimmer of a rainbow.
There is more than color that causes a semiotic image in the mind. The eye also engages the following semiotic processes.
The eyes engage three distinct but overlapping fields of view, basically a central focus, with left/right edges, and top/bottom thresholds. An object that crosses past any of these areas is detected by the eye-brain and causes instant cerebellum-efferent motor response without necessarily undergoing a complete optical-chiasma signal processing cycle. The eye can therefore instantly trigger a response without thought.
Various forms of motion are necessarily more alluring to the eye-brain. The flight direction of a butterfly is indicative of the most captivating form of motion. The highly variable trajectory of the flight of a butterfly causes the brain to constantly break and form and break symmetry (Kugler 92), engaging all three fields of view of the eye. There is an interesting potential connection in such forms of variable motion to the various payback schedules in gambling addictions, and the addictive process in the brain necessary to capture the focus of attention.
When the schema of payback is irregular, but with aperiodic large fluctuations, addictive processes are strongest. The other three schemas of lesser addictive process quality are; steady payback at lesser returns, steady payback at lesser returns with occasional large returns, and irregular, small returns.
Various forms of 'gambling' stategies may be reflected in how different species exhibit learning and memory interaction with the environment. Some animals, such as squirrels, rapidly forget where they buried large numbers of nuts, thus providing a rich chance for a new tree or food cache for another species. Some animals, such as squirrels under sudden, severe stress, lose all control over learned escape patterns due to the surge of neurochemicals in their brains. Sometimes this is good in that a pursuing predator can't get an edge up on catching the squirrel for food. But sometimes a squirrel in relative safety will unintentionally place itself in high risk situations, running back under a car.
There must be something in the presentation of certain forms of visual information to the eye-brain that causes such radical behavioral responses. Signal structure invariants is suggested as containing sufficient information to trigger such response modalities.
As information is presented to the eyes, certain invariant characteristics are contained in the signal processing stream that the species can genetically observe or can learn to detect. As the information passes through the retina and into the optical chiasmatic pathway, through the hippocampal region, in particular the amygdala, and into the cerebellum, where it is impressed on the cerebral cortex of Area 17 and Area 18, there exists the structural capacity for the central nervous system to act upon invariants at any time short of a complete visual saccade cycle, three times per second.
Indicated is the following: Certain parts of the brain, in particular the amygdala and the cerebellum, can detect invariant structures in visual information signals, prior to those signals reaching Area 17, and that invariants in visual informtion cause immediate non-cognitive CNS motor responses. The amygdala is closely associated with spawning anxiety and fear based cerebellum responses executed without volition via the efferent nervous pathways. Once a semiotic process is learned and disseminated to the cerebellum, or is contained as a genetically 'hard wired' response modality in the cerebellum, invariant trigger events in the information presented to the eye-brain will cause the CNS to automatically interact with the environment.
Equally, the eye-brain will also automatically respond to a sensed and falsely perceived - but not cognitively registered set of invariants. Just as we can swat at an annoying real bug that flys at our eyes, we can execute the same swat semiotically at a mental rendering of an annoying bug created due to the same invariants stored away or presented non-cognitively, or recalled as in dreams, or play-acting.
The learned patterns of response in the cerebellum directly feed into the efferent nervous pathways and 'automaton' like behavior can take place, which can account for drug-induced learning without volitional cognition, and can explain why an intoxicated person can still perform complex activities such as driving a car - without cognizant memory of the activity.
Other forms of motion that break lock and entrain the brain visually are spinning, the flowing of water, rolling motion - wheels of any kind, and explosions. Even apparent motion is sufficient to attract semiotic attention, such as the flicking of shadows when driving under overpasses. The edges of sunlight and shadow cause the eyes to blink and cause the same tensing of the efferent pathways as actual motion. Also, objects that loom small to large or zoom in large to small, which extend top or bottom out of our field of view cause semiotic change states and efferent tensing. Large shapes that suddenly emerge, clocks ticking, pendulums, even the images of falling objects can all trigger brain entrainment.
Different species set up different timing mechanisms to handle the biological significance to such breaking and resetting of attentional mechanisms, such as the striatum at the basal ganglia. Pidgeons for example rapidly bob their heads up and down in a physical enforcement to break lock with their environmental information streams of attention. In humans, the prefrontal lobes, primarily the left prefrontal, keep the attentional focus maintained. Rubbing the forehead is a form of physical manipulation to help the frontal lobe perform its function in maintaining symmetry and focus. A karate chop to the back of the neck, or the methodical rubbing of the base of the neck, are again various techniques to physically manipulate the release of adenosine to cause changes in brain frequency states, herein a reduction of brain activity toward Delta state unconsciousness or to a Theta state dreamlike trance.
4.3 DISTANCE: THE 30+ MILE TO INFINITY BASELINE
The eyes are fully capable of providing visual information into the brain resulting in either cognitive or non-cognitive central nervous system (CNS) patterns of behavioral response.
Underlying the CNS efferent motor pathway response effect must be certain triggers in the information flow from the eyes that causes non-volitional CNS efferent responses.
On a curve of distance versus mental image size, images approaching the grow only slightly larger in the eye-brain, until approximately one arm's length from the eye - then images grow rapidly until about one to two inches from the eye.
Structurally and via signal processing, images impact the brain dramatically within two to six feet of actual distance, or two feet to six feet of virtual semiotic distance.
Semiotic images of mind are contained in mental representations roughly equivalent to two inches to two to six feet.
The eye-brain uses minimal energy when staring at objects at long distances out to infinity, such as to the horizon at sea, or to a mountain off in the distance, which normally falls into a range of about 30+ miles.
Mountains and galaxies and the sun setting on the ocean's horizon would set up the distance energy baseline.
By presenting the eye-brain with distance information and then rapidly superpositioning information based on high semiotic content of two feet to two inches, entrains the brain in exactly the two optimal areas of the distance versus size curve by which the optical chiasmatic pathway is biologically structured in the human.
By simply combining the elements described in sections 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 established, very powerful visual semiotic entrainment or symmetry breaking techniques can be established for either cognitive or non-cognitive, invariant based, learned or autonomic behavioral patterns in humans.
For example: Information visualization presented to the eye-brain featuring a long, smooth vista of green grass, swaying and flowing toward a far off mountain would set the baseline. Then in quick succession, the flash of a light, the fluttering of a butterfly, and the super-imposition of a looming object, such as a large airplane, spinning or illuminated to the semiotic distance of two feet to two inches would probably capture most humans attention, causing them to mentally shift from what they were currently doing or thinking.
Given that human mental real estate doesn't allow for much polyphasic thinking, such an example demonstrates how the human semiotic process can be quickly captured and modified, and without conscious deliberation.
A nighttime information visualization equivalent could also be presented; wherein, the eye-brain is presented with moonlit expanses of water reaching out to the horizon, stars sparkling in the sky, fireflies blinking on and off at different rhythms, then total blackness, and the sudden eruption of a volcano, with red hot lava gushing and splurting, would also instantly occupy the human visual semiotic process.
4.4 PROSOPOPOEIA - FACES
In the visual saccade of the human eye, the eyes move from left to upper right in three staggered movements once a second. Rather than a continuous stream of visual information, the saccade results in three bursts of information sent from the eyes into the optical chiasmatic pathways to the left rear and right rear portions of the cerebrum.
Because of the high bandwidth of information in the pulses of visual sensory information from the eyes and the very limited amount of physical space to accomplish signal to noise separation in the ten inches or so from the eyes to Area 17, the eye-brain structurally manipulates visual information in order to accomplish the extraction of useful environmental features from the bandwidth.
Whereas the nose is very close to the olfactory receptor sites in the brain, an inch or two, as well as the ears are also very close physically to Broca-Wernicke area, a few inches at most, the eyes because of the bandwidth of information in the visual spectrum are at the furthest distance from Area 17 that they can be physically located. Still, the biological structure of the eye-brain must invert the visual signals to compensate for how the lens of the eye introduces spectral information onto the retinal surface, then diverts the visual information to the opposite side of the brain, all in order to gain additional signal to noise separation - time and spatial filtering of useful environmental features. The last bits of information presented during each left to right visual saccade motion occur in Area 17, the 2-D endpoint of the optical chiasmatic pathway.
In Area 17, noise is reduced, signal is enhanced, and an exact 2-D topological laydown of objects from the real world are put down in a map grid of exactly what the eye is sensing. Area 18 begins the conversion, using similar cerebral cortex structures to those found in Broca-Wernicke and other parts of the brain, of the 2-D information into the 3-D semiotic mental representations that then spread in lissajous-like dispersion patterns throughout the rest of the brain.
Of interest, the common biological structures found throughout the brain cortex result in different semiotic percepts - perceptions. Aural information and aural invariants in the signals sent from ear to Broca-Wernicke result in the perception of sound. The nose structures convert smell signals into the perceptions of smell. And, the biological computational structures in Area 17, common to smell and hearing structures, nonetheless convert visual information into the perception of sight. Obviously, there is something very important happening in the filtering of afferent information from the sensory modalities to the various subtopologies of the cerebral cortex - and this filtering appears to be affine stationary 1/f removal of noise and presentation of signal to biologic computional structures that are presupposed to receive such signals.
Basically, Area 17 is geared to receive preprocessed signals, not noise, to act upon with more signal processing - the semiotic process. Based on the nature of the frequency and amplitude and phase structure (e.g.- pulse repitition rate, etc.), the common brain computational structures, common semiotic processes, common electromagnetic memory, common mechanical protein reconfiguration memory storage and recall processes, common dispersion patterns, and other common components in the different subtopologies of the brain cortex, all nonetheless receive different signal invariants to work upon, thus producing the different perceptions that make up mind.
Common brain, common computational semiotic processes, act upon different signals to produce different perceptions. When brain binds the different semiotic perceptions into high harmonic 40+ Hz patterns, the synergistic effect is the mental theater of mind, in particular conscious mind. At different frequency levels, mind is altered, to the non-conscious Delta states at basic (non-harmonic) 3 to 5 Hz, the dream like and meditative states of Theta in the 7 to 9 Hz region, the alert wakeful states of Alpha in the 10 to 15 Hz, and the increasing frenetic to schizophrenic states of high Beta arousals in the 15+ Hz regime.
The signal from the eyes is preparing itself for the brain and the brain is presupposed by design to prepare itself for the signal. The importance here should not be understated.
The cerebral cortex is structured to receive useful signals by which to learn useful semiotic languages and patterns of usefully combined semiotic languages of mind. Receptor sites are established to receive these signals. The more signals, the more receptor sites are established in the brain in an addictive fashion. If signals do not arrive and bind, lock up, with the receptor sites, the receptor sites send out neurochemicals to orient the brain sensory modalities to provide signals. If real signals from the environment are not sent to the receptor sites, then semiotic based signals from the mind are sent to the receptor site. In this way, the brain feeds its addictive process with either real environmental signals or learned semiotic signals.
When the entire brain is listening to silence or looking at nothing specific, but is cued to some expected event, the entire outer periphery of the cortex is very electroencephalograph (EEG) and positron emission transmission (PET) active, all sensors and semiotic processes on alert. If nothing happens, the brain over time will begin to shift from this original EEG - PET status into a different semiotic based pattern of closure. The brain tries to complete patterns with external or internal information.
If the environment doesn't provide a pattern, the mind will construct one in an attempt to enfold the event as a learned activity.
The ability to measure learning is simple. Monitor the cerebral cortex signal to noise information time delay during a learning cycle. As the brain is learning, the right side is bouncing information via the corpus callosum to the left side and vice versa. The process is time consuming in the formation of semiotic languages and takes on the order of 100 to several hundred milliseconds.
Once learning is accomplished and the semiotic language associated with the learning is disseminated from the cortex into the cerebellum and efferent motor pathways, the timing and the orientation of the brain shifts dramatically.
Learned pathways from the right side of the cerebellum control the right side of the body and the left cerebellum controls the left side of the body. This shift from the bicameral mind to cerebellum based brain output results in efferent responses less than 100 milliseconds. Learning left to right and right to left uses up precious survival time. Learned events execute faster, and restore survival time. The brain is an addictive cycle of learning to learn to secure precious survival response time.
Once learning occurs in an EM field pattern or conformational change, a QSK registration takes place, establishing identification with a unique quantum code for further semiotic or cerebellum output actuation.
By analogy, the afferent nervous pathway to the brain is high fidelity fiber optics providing a rich infusion of reduced noise, lossless signal input into the cortex. The cerebral cortex takes the rich invariants (codelets) of the afferent system and transforms the information into 3-D semiotic alphabets, which form semiotic languages in the brain, which bind together to form mind.
Continuing with the analogy, the efferent motor pathway from the cerebellum, while faster in execution than the afferent brain learning process, is not made up of high fidelity fiber optic - like material; rather, the efferent system is much more like cheap twisted pair copper wiring, highly error prone.
The output of learning is to place mind and brain back into a system that by structural composition is error prone. In bizarre evolutional fashion, the mental output of humans introduces error that necessarily causes the next round of addictive afferent input to resolve the error. If humans were just simply such an example of a closed-loop or even double loop closed cybernetic system, then over time consistent patterns of behavior would emerge that would mark an eventual non-survival, end-game potential.
The human brain gets out of this eventual evolutionary trap of closed loop cybernetics through the semiotic-based process of "Feedforward" anticipatory strategies.
The ability to construct mental variations of QSK coded semiotic images allows humans to project into the future and learn future memories and the consequences of those future events, and store them away for future use. The QSK is important in that this is how humans can predict likely events, and discriminate between past real memory, dream memory, noetic memory, in process learning memory, and all the variations in between. When there are structural problems in the instantiation of QSK or when QSK coding is very similar across memories, then such perceptual defaults such as deja vu, deja reve, arrive, pense, connu, dit, eprouve, fait, goute, lu, su, voulu, visite, vecu, senti, parle, pressenti, raconte, rencontre, et al can occur.
The ability for humans to look into a 3-D semiotic future provides a virtual capability to alter reality, in an eolithic fashion, reconfigure patterns, learn the results, and then draw conclusions and the consequences of future action of the mind back down into the brain for execution versus information derived from the environment. Such a semiotic capacity dictates a huge evolutionary advantage. Humans possess the highest degree of fidelity Macula-Fovea to Area 17 signal extraction in the animal kingdom.
In combination, the prefrontal lobes and the anterior cingulate, override cerebellum and other cortex downselection processes. They are implicated in the ability to maintain the focus of attention to internal mental semiotic musing of the eolithic future, versus constantly attending to a past induced present. As a result, the brain-mind is freed to look into the future and "Feedforward" useful information to understand the past and prepare for the future.
With more than fifty percent of the human neurology dedicated to hand-eye coordination, Area 17 and in particular left Area 17 plays a great semiotic role in the ability of humans to make and reconfigure tools that can quickly dominate a planet, as opposed to the information capacity of other species.
Certain nitrogen-based molecules introduced into the bloodstream that navigate past the blood-brain barrier excite the semiotic process in humans, from substances such as caffein, nicotine, heroin and cocaine and red meats. Other nitrogen interacting chemicals cause a shift in semiotic processes and QSK coding processes of past, present and future memories. These chemicals are, for example, found in morphine, codeine, opium, alcohol and tryptophan. The myriad numbers of receptor specific neurochemicals and hormones internally produced in the human brain, dopamine, serotonin, melatonin, adenosine, calpain, endorphins, acetylcholine, etc. are all fine tuning the semiotic processes of addictive learning and memory and error correction and feedforward processes of the human brain-mind.
Not surprisingly, the primary molecules that biocomputationally combine to produce human mental activity are those primarily found in air and water interacting with carbon - crystalline H2O, and Nitrogen, electromagnetically resonating with protein microtubulin in the glial cell rich domain of the neuropil. Neuropil synapto-dendritic regions never physically connect, thereby producing an extremely intricate 3-D biological computational structure.
The 3-D biological computer in the protective skull casing of the human can naturally only continue to enlarge in the area directly beneath the soft spot in the skull plates of human infants.
The area of the brain under this part of the skull is the anterior cingulate, implicated in the ability to focus the brain-mind on "Feedforward" semiotic processes. The human infant brain sprouts neuronal clusters at an amazing, mostly Delta and Theta state, where upwards of 100,000 interneuronal connections are laid down every minute in the ninth month prenatal to several years of age. The first few years of life are crucial to the structural capacity of the brain to carry out semiotic processes of mind later in life. Just as the eyes are not engaged in a continuous process of information gathering, but are engaged in bursts of information gathering and interpretation, the human brain also undergoes various bursts of neuronal sprouting, consolidation and pruning throughout life. Much of Piaget's observations about the maturation cycle of children can be linked to brain surges in interneuronal capacity.
Since human mental output is error prone, and human infants take years to fully develop the structural capacity for complete semiotic functioning, there would be an evolutionary advantage for older humans to teach and help shape the error correcting potential of replacement infants. Whereas not all older humans would have the same amount of evolutionary interest in the previous statement, infants would be at an advantage to more closely interact with those older humans willing to share learned semiotic knowledge.
Because the Macula-Fovea of an infant is not quite ready to lay down a green baseline 2-D map into Area 17, the first sights of human infants are in the near and far reds of the area of the retina below the optic nerve.
The first neurolinguistic pattern of Broca-Wernicke that an infant can induce is the enfoldment pursing of the lips into an 'M' sound to suck and draw nutrients into the mouth. The vibration and warmth sensory modalities of the human infant are also at play.
Given this, the proto-semiotic world of the human infant is one of more or less integrated hues of red, warmth, sucking, genital motion, smooth shapes and specific hard wired smells. As human infants begin to focus their eyesight, the visual world of Area 17 fills with the meaningfulness of faces, some useful, others not useful. Therefore, the first real complete visual interaction with human culture, as part of the environment, is when the human infant begins to develop extended semiotic processes by visual processing of human and other faces at a distance of two to six inches to two to six feet. The ability to extract which human facial characteristics mean what, such as laughing, crying, talking, eating, yelling are all extremely important evolutionary critical feature extractions.
The Area 17 eidetic memories are established in the human infant significantly before the full neurolinguistic memory functions of Broca-Wernicke. Therefore, Area 17 is essential to human cultural development.
Prosopopoeia is the Greek word for the ability to call up human/other faces to derive useful information about the future. Prosopopoeia emanates from Area 17 and Area 18, and is triggered primarily in left Area 17 as a result of the final information laydown of the visual saccade. When humans want to recall faces and images of loved ones, such as a mother or a favorite pet, a gentle massaging or tapping of the area behind the left ear, closing of the eyes, and the act of rolling the eyes up and to the right is often sufficient to trigger the internal focus and the recall of the desired visage. Even as certain facial images are removed from the actual field of view, there is a continuation of neuronal firing in the region of Areas 17 and 18, indicating that there is some degree of hard wiring to accomodate the immediate and prolonged processing of facial invariants, suggested as 'authoritative' invariants. Such invariants are genetically encoded into Area 17 to alert the semiotic processes that they are about to receive an environmentally significant signal.
Donchin's work in the mid-80's on P-300, and a series of other facial pattern recognition cueing events in the human brain, further indicated that human interaction with faces, prosopopoeia, is an important mental activity for survival. Prosopopoeia also includes the recall of faces in dreams and other altered brain states. Accordingly, in the semiotic alphabet, prosopopoeia is part of both hard wired recognition and plastic signal processing reconfiguration in the human visual semiotic language.
Showing faces to humans must elicit a semiotic response. The virtual reality introduction of stimuli of invariant human facial signal characteristics into Area 17 must also elicit a semiotic response. Perhaps this is what occurs when certain invariants contained in the optical-chiasmatic pathway pass by the thalamus and excite the anxiety/fear complex of the amygdala, automatically releasing adrenaline in preparation for a 'flee-fight' cerebellum response to certain faces. Or for other faces, the invariants stimulate a release of pleasure inducing responses. By simply raising the right eyebrow for an extended moment or two, pleasure thoughts can be stimulated. Equally, by simply raising the left eyebrow for an extra moment, can stimulate the semiotic process into feeling of sadness and memories of depression.
Stimulation of Area 17, and in particular of left Area 17, causes picture-like memories to be elicited. The triggering point in left Area 17 is also coupled to dream instantiation. There is no noise in dreams because the dream is in the bandwidth of the memory that is QSK coded. Dreams are 100% clarity.
Simply massaging the left rear of the head and a little massage to the forehead can help the semiotic process of visualizing a face or memory of pictures - when the picture comes into internal view, the mannerisms of massage automatically cease. The picture is brought forth by a common binding process across the brain. An affect of the binding process, especially if disparate regions of the brain are involved at various geometries on different sides of the corpus callosum is laughter. When semiotic information in one part of the geometry does not conform to the information in the other part of the geometry on the other side of the corpus callosum, and when the intracollasal transfer finally confirms that latter information from one geometry is more 'true' than prior information is from the other geometry, the result is "laughter" - "a sneeze of thought." The bigger the diverse brain coupling when truth emerges, the bigger the laugh, from a chuckle to a rolling, lingering, boisterous series of guffaws.
4.5 ANTINOMY - THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF BRAIN-MIND
From the saying, "...Two heads are better than one:" - The brain is full of 'two heads' combining to make a semiotic decision. In the prefrontal lobe, the left side sends signals the mind interprets as pleasure and happiness, and the entire left temporal side of the brain is filled with neurochemicals that make humans feel good. The right frontal lobe, on the other hand, sends signals that indicate human life is sad and depressed.
Every 90 to 120 minutes either the left hemisphere or the right hemisphere of the brain is dominating resonant brain frequency events, as indicated by EEG's and PET scans. The left human nostril opens just a bit more to feed in a little more oxygen when the right hemisphere is dominant. The right nostril opens just a bit more when the left side takes over. At various times during the day and in sleep, both sides of the brain slip into synchrony with each other and quiet, restful behavior patterns result. Otherwise, in periods of asymmetrical brain activity, there are fitful tossing and turning in sleep and nervous mannerisms in wakeful pursuits.
Antinomy, from the Greek word for antagonistic forces that together produce a mutually beneficial result - a positive synergy, seems to be expressed in the structure of the human brain. The human brain seems to use antinomy in brain structure to perform a measurement on reality.
Based on blood flow and knotty neuronal topology nutrient capture, the addictive left side of the human brain gets rewarded first with receptors locked up and pleasure feedback neurochemicals released into the left temporal somesthetic portion of the brain.
However, the addictive right side of the brain receives lesser amounts of blood nutrients, such that the non-verbal right side of the brain, with many receptors unlocked releases neurochemicals indicating more external sensory stimulus, or more semiotic internal stimulus to satisfy addictive requirements for learning.
Thus, a very interesting measurement duel is established with a knotty 3-D left biological computational structure, capable of expressing itself in neurolinguistic patterns, and full of "feel good" chemicals like oxytocin, surging along dealing with reality, in conflict with a smooth 3-D right biological computational structure, not so fully capable of neurolinguistic expression, oozing with "feel bad" chemicals, making due with semiotic virtual images of reality - the result is pure computational antinomy, the basis of sentient computing.
The development of the corpus callosum structurally allows both sides of the brain to communicate with each other. But in the human species, the amount of intercollasal transfer bundling is subject to sexual dimorphism - in which males and females statistically emerge with more or less, males having on average, less bilateral symmetry and less efficient coupling in the intercollasal transfer mechanism.
For every action a human makes or thought a human thinks, a dual axis, and even a three axis scalar, computational process is actuated. Sometimes a longer intercollasal learning is better, sometimes a shorter lopsided learning pattern is better. In either case, the better result gets sent into the cerebellum for future control of the same side hemisphere. Actually, the basic dual antinomy computer of the cerebral cortex downloads into the more machine like, serial/parallel computation of the cerebellum. The human actually operates with what appears to be up to a three axis computational process. The X, Y antinomy establishes basic measurement and the scalar axis, Z, provides additional sentient, holonomic measurement of self.
4.6 ERGODICITY AND NON-LINEAR CHAOS
As the human eyes visually saccade from lower left to upper right, what is being observed in left occipital Area 17 is three bursts of non-linear behavior per second superposed on time-transient behavior, that results in ordered patterns that evolve in time. The transient behavior is eliminated as the eyes reach the upper right portion of the visual saccade, leaving only strange attractors and deterministic chaos to winnow out during the chiasmatic pathway, for semiotic introduction to Area 17, and semiotic conversions and transformations in surrounding Area 18.
Whereas most self-similar patterns are consistent, ergodically, over different scalar transformations, there are other non-linear patterns that become consistent only at different ergodic scales. In essence, there are forms of non-linear ergodicity that evolve from focus at certain scalar transformations into chaos at the next transformation, and then back into focus at another scalar pattern.
Semiotic differences in species could not only be related to portions of the electromagnetic spectrum undergoing cortical sensory transformation, but also in the scalar focus/chaos coding of patterns of sensory information. For instance, what if Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon both interacted with the environment with basically the same brain computational functions, with Neanderthal possessing a larger overall cranium capacity, but the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum sensed by their eyes and the ergodicity self-similarity of their focus/chaos coding were different.
If Cro-Magnon came out with a Macula-Fovea in the green spectrum, sending deterministically chaotic strange attractors signals over a optical chiasmatic pathway into an isomorphic left Area 17 for 2-D point to point connections, that would serve to feed focus coded 3-D visual semiotic information into Area 18 for dissemination and binding with other focus semiotic languages throughout the cerebral cortex, then Cro-Magnon would have an extremely competent evolutionary mechanism to 'Feedforward' future mental images of the consequences of eolithic toolmaking and reconfigurations of information, even if the energy and brain frequency requirements and information signal processing would require Cro-Magnon to sleep upwards of 20 minutes a day, three times a day, in a deep Delta state, almost completely incapable of conscious self-defense.
If Neanderthal on the other hand, physically stronger and with a larger overall brain, came out with eyes and an optical chiasmatic pathway that registered slightly different electromagnetic spectrum onto an Area 17 with a focus coding more chaotically cloudy, then the ability for clear 3-D 'feedforward' semiotic mental representations and reconfigurations would be lessened, with an accompanying lesser evolutionary skill. Different semiotic scalar transformations suggests that Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal could communicate with each other, even understand each other, but in cloudy terms and mostly with respect to the present and past, not necessarily the future, or in moral implications of future action.
As implicated in Julian Jaynes, 'Origins of Consciousness of the Bicameral Mind,' perhaps the dawn of Homo Sapiens and of present day Humans, is the emergence of different mental coding (QSK) in the scales of focus and chaos across the ergodic self-similarity, deterministic chaos and strange attractors/invariance common in biologic computational structures.
For all the strength and brain size and even burial rights of Neaderthal, perhaps shortfalls in scalar focus and feedforward semiotics and the ability to conduct internal future moral considerations took a natural evolutionary toll and prevented species continuation. Maybe Neanderthal's Area 17 didn't exist, or only partially so, because of different blood flow and nutrient absorption coefficients in the brain.
ALPHABET OF IMAGES:
All of these items reinforce each other and often merge in tuples and triplets. Many of these topics can be considered subsets of other topics, which could shorten the list, and additional versions could probably be supplied, slightly increasing the list, but roughly the same number of visual signs and symbols (semiotics) exist to combine to portray and recreate reality in visual language as does the spoken alphabets to create a neurolinguistic representation and description of the world - 20 to 40 components make up languages, influencing and heavily influenced by cultural modifications.
Just as we do not increase the number of sound types in our Broca-Wernicke area as we age, we also do not increase the number of images in our Area 17 computations. We may become more or less aware of our spoken and visual languages, but we do not structurally increase the computational components underlying the languages. However, just as recombinant DNA can introduce more complex coding sequences into new life forms, there should be no reason why recombinant Semiotic coding could not emerge to give us a larger Broca-Wernicke or Area 17 semiotic language capacity.
Sentient machine language could conceivably host spoken and visual semiotics that exceed the human electromagnetic and focus-chaos (QSK) limitations currently expressed in biologic computational structures, perhaps much in the same manner as Cro-Magnon to Neaderthal.
Here is a sample of some of the underlying brain structure and function for a few of the items in the Semiotic Alphabet: Images of Mind.
Motion, Distance, Eyes (green and red), Size, Shadows and Prosopopeia - Faces, Authority receive in depth coverage in other sections.
Lines that appear straight cause a Macula-Fovea focus indicative of human activity, as opposed to the more non-linear, curvilinear activity of other species biological computational activity. Non-biological processes, such as earth-chemical processes, can produce remarkable artifacts in nature, to include straight lines and geometries that otherwise would appear to be formed by human activity, and can fool the human visual process.
Nonetheless, converging and diverging lines also impact Area 17 and subsequent Area 18 semiotic processes related to interpretation and pattern development.
In the presence of alternating electromagnetic fields placed on the right and left temporal regions of the human brain, series of lines and orthogonal crosses and rotating x-shaped patterns are perceived, to include associated sensations/perceptions of time elongation, to extreme situations of 'no time' and a complete 'end of test pattern' shut down effect, where the person completely shuts down internal visualization and time awareness.
That lines and patterns of lines can dramatically affect human behavior is indicative of a very strong semiotic basis in the transformation of lines and strings (String Theory) into much more complex mental visual representations. Human soft wired signal processing of line patterns and associated geometries appears to go much farther in semiotic predictive reconfiguration of 'feedforward' future realities than in any other species. In other animals, crossing lines and edge penetrations result in very specific hard wired behavioral responses, whereas in humans, it appears that semiotic manipulation of lines gives us the capacity to learn and test predictive locations and geometries on future patterns for QSK storage for future recall and application to present and past pattern utilization.
Because more than 50% of human neuronal circuitry is dedicated to Hand-Eye coordination, humans spend a lot of quality time observing, mostly non-cognitively, own and others hands and eyes. Hands and eyes are critically important to efficient human semiotic internal representations. Just as the human tongue moves in the mouth to physcially map out neurolinguistic patterns in speech and word related movement, the hands and eyes also trace out 3-D patterns to physcially represent or physically stimulate internal human semiotic visual patterns. Hand - Eye gesticulation is an efferent loop, showcasing what is going on internal to the mind.
Hand - Eye gesticulation is also providing afferent error control feedback loop information back into the semiotic pattern testing of reality taking place in Area 17 and Area 18.
On earth in the presence of gravity, the human eyes are normally looking out and down, not up, and mostly down, not out. Human eyes are normally looking down on the ground with some forward field of view. A strong evolutionary reason for such a configuration of the eyes is that Area 17 should be able to optimize the sensory search for food and or treasure.
Most food or treasure on earth is down and out. The eyes are remarkably able to spot odd or novel or learned objects in clutter, mostly ground place clutter. Put a twenty dollar bill in a dirty gutter with lots of non-valuable items and very soon a human eye will focus in, detect and cause a cerebellum response to pick up the money, or treasure or food.
Area 17 and Area 18 in the absense of legitimate sensory input will begin to manufacture semiotic patterns that reflect survival requirements; hence, the mirage, or the hallucination of food or money, etc. Borrowing a phrase from Field of Dreams, instead of build it and they will come, "...Dig a Hole, and Semiotics Will Come."
In the larger section on Antinomy, discussion indicates that the human brain is constantly comparing and contrasting, to include fusing diametrically opposed biologic computational outputs, in its internal semiotic pattern making, hypothesis generation, down selection and decision making deferral with support from the prefrontal lobes and anterior cingulate. That the human brain is capable of dealing with antinomy such as Smoothness and Roughness is not surprising. Human - made objects reflect a different fractal dimension of smoothness and roughness than naturally occuring objects. The human knotty topology of the left cerebral hemisphere is intricately capable of discerning roughness, down to fine filagree details, whereas the smoother computation of the less profligate right cerebral hemisphere dovetails quiet efficiently with the grace and flowing patterns of longer, less complex patterns.
The shifting signal processing of the human Macula - Fovea to the right and left occipital Areas 17 and 18 are natural extensions of fractal-wavelet (Gabor Function in Hilbert Space) estimators and trappers of self-similar ergodic invariants, strange attractors and deterministic chaotic boundaries. In essence, the human brain is a smoothness - roughness calculator using the corpus callosum as a measurement device combining the semiotic inputs of left and right Areas 17 and 18.
Again and again in the limited signal bandwidth, the precious real estate, of the human physical brain, the constant antinomy very often produces the following restrictions on human mental processing and cerebellum output. Humans get into conditions of phase lock loop in which the same state cycle limits of semiotic representation repeat and repeat and repeat, locking out other biological computations. At other times, constant noise and low threshold of input constantly keep the semiotic process from enfolding upon a down select mode, normally in a frenetic high Beta state of brain frequency, in which the molecular resonance in the brain is excessive, most likely in the nitrogen frequency regime, thus producing a hectic, confused semiotic initiation sequence.
Under normal mental conditions, the human brain seems most adept at starting with one end of the continuum of the semiotic antinomy process, such as smooth right hemispheric hand - eye drawing and carefully, precisely shifting to a controlled, detailed left hemispheric concentration, and then shifting scalar processes back again.
For instance it is very easy to use both hands to trace out detailed or smooth drawings, but much more difficult to assign semiotic bandwidth control to draw smooth with one hand and detailed with the other, without substantial training and practice.
The human brain would appear to be a measurement device between the opposite ends of an antinomy continuum, with a very high degree of precision in picking the intermediate invariants which depict reality, and then sending such invariants into semiotic 3-D mental transformations and feedforward pattern reconfigurations and test for potential use in human survival.
When the human eye - semiotic process is presented with large numbers of objects, semiotic processes begin to cluster and associate very quickly above numbers 10 to 20. Perhaps because the optic nerve is structured in such a way that the only two distances of optimal concern to Area 17 include 30 miles out to infinity and 2 inches to 6 feet, the brain processes are themselves optimized to deal with the likely numbers of objects in the field of view at these two distances. Accordingly, probably no more than 10 to 20 objects will populate at two inches, while extremely large numbers, such as myriad stars in a clear night sky will predominate the human field of view. Given that clustering and grouping are efficient forms of energy conversion, the Human Eye - Area 17/18 Semiotic complex probably deals with two sets of optimal numbers, small numbers and large number sets. Evidence of this is seen in asking people to recount how many objects they witnessed, which normally results in either an accurate number of recounted objects when the actual count falls below 10 to 20, or mistaken counting on the low side when numbers of objects greater than 20 begin to form into larger multiple sets of 50, or another form of mistaken counting where the recounted objects are much higher than the actual number of objects, such as claiming thousands when there where only hundreds.
The semiotics of survival is a most important area for representation and feedforward reconfiguration of Areas 17 and 18. The internal visualizations and forward consequences of Sex, and Temperature, and Death - God - Authority, and Fire, and Water, and Blood-Meat would contain tremendous implications for internal testing of the virtual, dreamlike, feedforward world of semiotics versus the learned, sighted observations of reality.
Children below the ages of three do not seem to possess a semiotic binding sense of the true significance of death, but they do seem to instinctively sense authority, as suggested in the section on prosopopoeia and some forms of authoritarian facial hard wiring associated in amygdala - cerebellum response to invariants in the information content flowing through the optical chiasmatic pathway.
Children's sense and perceptions of Life-Death-Morality-God-Authority seem to semiotically bind for the first time between the ages of 3 and 7, as Piaget would suggest, and again very closely related to recall functions of prosopopoeia. Patients interviewed after near death experiences repeatedly refer to seeing the faces of their loved ones, mothers and fathers, grandparents, at an age in life, and most often from the perspective from the waist up, as if from the early semiotic fusion memorys (QSK) as a child between the ages of 3 to 7. When the anterior cingulate is probed mechanically, human subjects also without exception, refer to elicited memories associated with love and morality and god and kindly authority figures and faces, suggesting that there are trigger spots in the Central Nervous System (CNS) for the elucidation of electromagnetic resonance memory (Sheldrake - 85) or mechanical protein consolidation (Eccles - 92), that are most likely disseminated via holonomic self-similar patterns throughout the brain/CNS field boundaries. People with brain frequencies entrained at 10 Hz frequencies also make many similar claims, to include the Pink or White Like sense of motion into and following a tunnel. Phosphene effects of externally induced flicker fusion and/or semiotic induced brain states may account for these experiences, but that they are part of human consciousness is important, because such powerful sensations/perceptions affect the potential survival role of the individual/culture, and should not be dismissed as extraneous brain/mind artifacts. Tunnels and faces and soothing white light may represent the most basic feedforward human semiotic condition, essential to our very sentient being - our initial semiotic binding, the semiotic trilogy of life.
Water and stillness also seem to capture human semiotic attention, causing a deferment over other mental activities. Fire and the Waving of a Flag and the internal vibration and rhythms associated with actual or semiotic Sex also appear to be major semiotic 'symbols of symbols,' from which other subordinate mental activities arise.
Temperature is important to humans and the fact that a shadow can convey information to Areas 17/18 of a semiotic location that means the difference between cooler life and overheated extinction is also a powerful semiotic symbol of symbols.
Returning to the theme of the brain as a measurement device between two ends of a semiotic continuum, in the domain from Clear to Fuzzy visual information, with specific Odd or Inverted or Reversed/Rotated Invariants, the semiotic discontinuities captured by the sensory input process to the brain appears to force the brain to produce a reason, to force a down select resolution of the semiotic problem, to deconflict the situation. Importantly, if sufficient noise is also entering the semiotic pathways from external or internal (prefrontal-anterior cingulate), (amygdala-cerebellum) sources, such that down selection can not occur, the brain could continue, non-cognitively, below just noticeable differences (jnd) at the sensation-perceptual interface threshold, to churn away semiotically, firing away unsuccessful pattern after unsuccessful pattern, thus tying up critical pattern recognition resources, in a non-conscious, yet still adaptive, open ended feedforward loop, with no effective survival closure and useful learning achieved.
In such a run away semiotic condition, there is great pattern development, but no practical survival implementation of the pattern.
Noise, the necessary explosion in the mind to break the previous symmetry lock and to induce a new set of semiotic options can be triggered in various ways.
From the saying, "...Eyes - windows to the soul:" - Research at the University of Washington, St. Louis would suggest that information passing through the anterior cingulate triggers in humans thoughts and feelings of soul - of connectedness to nature/universe. Information through the amygdala, nearby, arouses concerns, anxiety and fear. Information through the nucleus accumbens stimulates actions related to sexual impulses. Information through the hippocampal region elicits ranges of common and specific, often unrecalled memories, including rage - almost as if 'Cross-Talk' emerges when information signals in one area of the brain cross over and stimulate, entrain nearby areas.
Such binding action is also triggered and mediated from pre-frontal lobe neuronal firing patterns - with coherence through the entoerhinal areas. Importantly, only in humans do these brain substructures, in this structural geometry, exist. Importantly, only in humans do these structures, these neuronal subtopologies, operate within the nitrogen-molecule based neurotransmitter breakdown cycles. Importantly, human-like concepts of soul, right and wrong morality, ethics which appear to emmanate from the anterior cingulate region, can be biochemically superstimulated and eventually shunted by introduction of nitrogen laden chemicals such as nicotine, cocaine, caffein, morphine, heroin, etc., and probably from electromagnetic equivalents that can specifically stimulate brain nitrogen resonant frequencies.
The changes in oxygen-nitrogen levels associated with alcohol intoxication and reduced oxygen blood levels from other intoxicants modifies information flow through the anterior cingulate. When the anterior cingulate regulation of brain processes drops off line, then the other stimulated areas of memory and semotic cortex/CNS, e.g. rage, sexual impulse, fear, animal-like sensory/perception modalities become established as dominant over human behavior. The learned patterns of response in the cerebellum directly feed into the efferent nervous pathways and 'automaton - like' behavior takes place. Such processes can account for 'drug-induced' learning without volitional cognition, such as why an intoxicated person can still perform relatively complex activities equivalent to driving a car - without cognizant memory of the activity.
Voltaire, the prolific French writer is said to have consumed tens of cups of coffee to enter his frenzied state of capturing his internal word thoughts, estimated at 700 word thoughts per minute. Writing with both his right and left hands and dictating as well to a scribe, he kept up with his word thoughts.
He loved these sublime moments - pure '100% in the bandwidth' efferent neurolinguistic speech - whereas most humans engage in a stuttering neurolinguistic deselection process - choosing only 60 or so words per minute from 700 available.
The human semiotic thought/learning process appears to be addictive, once we start to do it, we do it all our lives. When we speak we are predisposed to hear, and when we hear we are predisposed to talk. Such oscillation of the Fibonacci - based coding sequence of the inner ear, the cochlea, is much the same coding sequence (QSK) of the nautilus and the basis of the floor plan of the Acropolis, the Greek Temple of Learning in Athens - nitrogen encryption/unlocking sequences that start the stimulation of the production of adenosine receptor sites in the brain. When we think and talk, adenosine is not present at the receptor sites. As we tire through the day and these sites need to replenish, adenosine from a gland at the back of the neck is released that locks up these sites, making them unavailable to us. When we drink coffee and ingest/interact with other nitrogen stimulating biochemicals/electromagnetic fields, our adaptive brain puts out new adenosine receptor sites. More receptor sites require more adenosine, which can only be produced at certain rates, therefore our brains get into a withdrawl situation where we can't shut off the thinking process. Rather than more thoughts being better quality, the net effect is run away less optimal learning thought processes. Falling asleep and dreaming in Theta is where some of the receptor sites are still open and partial direct channels of semiotic condition can occur, but in dreamlike, disconnected patterns. It appears that humans must undergo a full Delta state of very low frequency resonance to restore the normal learning addictive state, which can be quickly stimulated by nitrogen resonating sources. If Delta states and other restorative frequencies are not allowed to occur in humans, then a chronic, under efficient semiotic state is engendered. Just as run away suboptimal Broca-Wernicke word thought addictions can occur, it should also be possible to describe Imagery-Based Addiction, such as Pornography, in Areas 17-18.
Hopefully, the description of the Semiotic Alphabet: Images of Mind establishes that humans and human cultures clearly are extremely dependent on the 2-D transformation of visual sensory information from the eyes to Areas 17-18 internal 3-D semiotic representation for a feedforward test of reality in the human condition. Without this capacity, in conjunction with binding to Broca-Wernicke and other areas of the brain, we would not be human. Importantly, this capacity is subject to modification both internally and via external sources. Equally, this capacity of the brain is not necessarily fixed and can be extended, augmented or transferred to machine based sentient computing requirements of the 21st Century.
4.7 BRANCHING TREES - THE SIGN OF BRAIN
The image of a broad, branching oak tree is a fitting semiotic sign for the wonderful complexity of the brain-mind, emerging out of less complex, yet self-similar, common structural components. Just as the eyes, as windows to the soul, feed the rich spectrum of colors into the brain to paint and massage the human condition, the branching tree represents how the brain draws upon, feeds and breathes out information anew. Much like a colorful coral reef, the tree-like brain is immersed in a sphere of information. The brain extracts and then enfolds selected information into new patterns to test and alter the world.
Just as trees rise from the ground to follow the sun, the brain rises up following the direction of tiny pieces of magnetite in special cells and areas of the brain to seek out important information from earth's electromagnetic fields. Just as trees sprout new fractal segments in search of nutrients, the brain sprouts self-similar bits of itself in the search for new information combinations. Trees begin to consolidate their growth patterns and focus in on fruitful sources of water and sunlight. The brain also consolidates and reinforces those neuronal regions, those neuropil locations, that provide the most useful real world or internally semiotic generated information. And the brain, as in trees, enters stages of pruning, regeneration, and the eventual stage of final pruning - natural down selection.
The insides of trees are full of long strings of plastic material that help a tree reconfigure itself to the vagaries of natural events. The insides of brains are full of long strings of plastic protein microtubulins that help a brain not only reconfigure itself based on extracted signals from the environment, but can out do a tree, in the sentient, eolithic ability to feedforward, assess, test and learn about the future, semiotically, in order to reconfigure itself to better extract and enfold upon information from the environment.
Trees consist of the elements of nature. The human brain thinks as the result of the correct assemblage of cells containing bound water in crytalline form, some slightly acidic, some slightly base, and the resonating frequency of nitrogen in a carbon-hydrogen lattice. Just as trees stand alone and in forests, human brains also stand alone and in cultures sharing common mental activities - human brain subtopologies bind into purposeful cohesive patterns of attention and focus. Human cultures bind into purposeful patterns of behavior.
Trees however do not engage in active cognitive antinomy, they do not measure themselves against themselves or against other trees beyond the struggle for imposed cybernetic and mathematical control and use of resources in natural selection. Humans are different than trees in that humans can turn on the antinomy, humans can observe their own mental states and those of others and make constant cognitive, and, most of the time, non-cognitive measurements of the holonomic, semiotic processes of the brain.
The brain, the coral reef of humans, is full of rich colors that reflect the tremendous variety of signals upon which we can extract and shape our future. The tree is the land based version of the coral reef, the arboreal home for the eventual sprouting, consolidation, pruning - the semiotic interlocution - of the human brain, engaged in biologic sentient pursuits.
Just as the coral reef saw the emergence of the trees on land, and trees saw the emergence of man upon the world, man is now at the juncture, the era, where semiotic processes will at first link up with machine intelligence in mutual augmentation. Then next, set free, emulated quantum-biologic-sentient forces can pursue totally new vistas of information reconfiguration - new patterns of life.
5.0 GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS
Antinomy - opposing actions, to include diametrically opposed elements,
that synergistically merge to produce useful measurement results
to the system
Afferent - information signals coming into the brain from the senses or other
Efferent - information signals emmanating out of the central nervous system
Neurolinguistics - brain structure related to language
Neuropil - brain structure encompassing the junction of dendrites, synapses,
glial cells, and microtubulin
Glial Cells - connective cells in the brain that also provide a rich source of
neurochemicals to the brain, in particular the neuropil
Microtubulin - strings of proteins that form complex biocommunication
networks in the brain, whose infrastructure is reconfigurable
Nucleus Accumbens - brain structure related to sexual differentiation
Cerebrum - large portion of the brain including the left and right hemispheres,
involving the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes
Cerebellum - large brain structure complex at the rear base of the skull,
connected to the spinal cord and the cerebrum
Cortex - the outer portion of the main body of the brain
Intracollasal - the transfer exchange of information between the right and left
hemispheres of the brain through the corpus callosum
Broca-Wernicke - complex of brain structure on the left side of the head
involved with the neurolinguistics of words and speech
Optical Chiasma - the structures from the eyes to the back of the brain involved
with the processing of human visual information
Macula-Fovea - the structures in the eyes that focus highly detailed human
visual information signals for transmission to occipital areas 17
Pre-Frontal Lobe - complex of brain structure just under the forehead involved
with the focus of attention
Parietal Lobe - complex of brain structure in the top middle of the brain involved
with the afferent and efferent nervous pathways of the somesthetic
Anterior Cingulate - brain structure in the forward top center of the brain
implicated in attentional control
Amygdala - brain structure nodules in the midcenter of the brain, closely
connected with the hippocampus and involved with control of
memories, anxieties, fears and impulses
Hippocampus - seahorse/shoe shaped brain structure in the midcenter of the
brain involved with control of emotions and memories
Temporal Lobes - complex of brain structure on either side of the head
implicated in a wide range of left side feelings of happiness
and right side sadness and depression
Occipital Areas 17 - brain structures in the left and right rear portion of the
cerebrum involved with the two-dimensional (2-D) retinal
transformation of vision into three-dimensional (3-D)
mental representations (semiotics)
Occipatal Area 18 - brain structures immediately surrounding Areas 17 in both
the left and right occipital lobes involved with the 3-D
semiotic process of human visual sensory information
dispersion via lissajous-like dissemination patterns
throughout the CNS
Striatum - brain structure near the basal ganglia related to biological timing
Lissajous - conversion of a stream of information into a dispersed, but
Ergodic - self-similar in that any portion of the whole represents
significantly the entire whole
Invariants - something which is seen to be the same from different
Semiotics - the science of signs and symbols capable of representing,
reconfiguring and recalling simple and complex groupings of
ergodic, invariant elements
Gabor Functions in Hilbert Space -
a mathematical representation of specific information/signal processing
indicative of what appears to occur in the human brain during semiotic -
sentient activity, related closely with Shannon's Law and a family of
self-similar transformations, such as Fractals, Wavelets, and Codelets
Sentient - containing the power of perception from the senses, but includes
also cognitive and non-cognitive sensation/perception, and the
ability to semiotically, eolithically, rearrange information for
feedforward, open loop, future predictive test and learning
Eolithic - teleological use of, formation and reconfiguration of tools
Teleology - purposeful behavior related to goals
Holonomic - the brain as a measurement of the entire/whole sentient being
Epiphenomenon - that which emerges out of existing phenomenon
Prosopopoeia - personification of inanimate things, the recall of faces
Metempsychosis - the transmigration of the soul into another animal or human
S:N - signal to noise ratio, where semiotic processes, such as dreams, remove
all noise, providing recall in the bandwidth of pure signals
MT - microtubulin, where the majority of human brain microtubulin is form 1013,
in which the 10 portion interacts with electric portions of electromagnetic
fields (EMF), and the 13 portion interacts with the magnetic component of
CNS - central nervous system
QSK - quantum shift key, suggested as the cryptologic encoding/decoding
process occurring during orchestrated reduction (OR) of quantum
entanglement in the MT at the neuropil during sentient activity
ZPE - zero point energy, (casimir effect), suggested as the initial energy
trigger from the natural environment to begin OR in the MT at the
PET - positron emission tomography, provides real time non-invasive
monitoring of brain function
EEG - electroencephalogram, measures electrical activity in the brain
1/f - 1 over the frequency
Hz - hertz, cycles per second
OR - orchestrated reduction is a quantum wave collapse in which quantum
selection, rejection or deferral occurs in the MT of the neuropil
Brain States - Beta (15 - 50+ Hz), very active to manic to schizophrenic
Alpha (9/10 - 15 Hz), wakeful, alert, composed
Theta (5/6 - 9/10 Hz), dreaming, meditative
Delta (1 - 5 Hz), Deeply asleep, highly non-cognitive
Delta states occurs roughly three time per day for twenty minute periods.
Most of the human condition occurs in Alpha and Theta states. Beta states
can rapidly deplete mental energies/neurochemical nutrients.
Publication: "Images of Mind: The Semiotic Alphabet"
-- by John D. Norseen, 15 May 1996
Copyright © John D. Norseen and the American Computer Scientists Association Inc.